What is Linux or unix

What is UNIX?

Unix (officially UNIX) is a registered trademark of The Open Group that refers to a family of computer operating systems and tools conforming to The Open Group Base Specification, Issue 7 (also known as POSIX.1-2008 or IEEE Std 1003.1 – 2008).

The original Unix operating system was developed at AT&T’s Bell Labs research center in 1969. In the 1970s and 1980s, AT&T licensed Unix to third-party vendors, leading to the development of several Unix variants, including Berkeley Unix, HP-UX, AIX, and Microsoft’s Xenix. In 1993, AT&T sold the rights to the Unix operating system to Novell, Inc., which a few years later sold the Unix trademark to the consortium that eventually became The Open Group.

Unix was developed using a high-level programming language (C) instead of platform-specific assembly language, enabling its portability across multiple computer platforms. Unix also was developed as a self-contained software system, comprising the operating system, development environment, utilities, documentation, and modifiable source code. These key factors led to widespread use and further development in commercial settings, and helped Unix and its variants become an important teaching and learning tool used in academic settings.

Who Developed Linux

Dennis M. Ritchiedmr

Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie was an American computer scientist. He created the C programming language and,      with  long-time colleague Ken Thompson, the Unix operating system

Born: September 9, 1941, Bronxville, New York, United States
Died: October 12, 2011, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, United States

As Dennis’s siblings, Lynn, John, and Bill Ritchie–on behalf of the entire Ritchie family–we wanted to convey to all of you how deeply moved, astonished, and appreciative we are of the loving tributes to Dennis that we have been reading. We can confirm what we keep hearing again and again:

“Ken” Thompsonkng

Kenneth “Ken” Thompson, commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles , is an American pioneer of computer science. Having worked at Bell Labs for most of his career, Thompson designed and implemented the original Unix operating system

History and Timeline

“…the number of UNIX installations has grown to 10, with more expected…” – Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson, June 1972

“… When BTL withdrew from the project, they needed to rewrite an operating system (OS) in order to play space war on another smaller machine (a DEC PDP-7 [Programmed Data Processor] with 4K memory for user programs).

The result was a system which a punning colleague called UNICS (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service)–an ‘emasculated Multics'; no one recalls whose idea the change to UNIX was”


Dice Report Shows Linux Admins Are Growing in Demand

Dice, the technology career site, along with the Linux Foundation, has released its 2014 Linux Jobs Report, and it’s looking good for Linux professionals. According to the report, the third Dice has released, demand for Linux proficient technology professionals continues to grow from last year. And Linux professionals themselves agree that their knowledge of Linux operating systems has helped advance their careers.

“Enterprises are increasingly describing Linux as a core part of the business,” says Shravan Goli, President of Dice. “In turn, hiring managers are turning up the dial on the incentives offered to technology talent with Linux skills. These professionals are working on projects tightly aligned with a future vision of what enterprises look like.”

According to the report, the number of hiring managers that place “hiring Linux talent” on their priorities list has risen 7 percent in the past year; from 70 percent in 2013 to 77 percent in 2014. This leaves 9 in 10 hiring managers planning to bring on a Linux professional within 6 months.

As you would expect, hiring managers are not only looking to hire Linux talent, but also to keep it around. 38 percent of hiring managers said they are willing to provide flexible work schedules. Additionally, the 2014 Dice Salary Survey reports Linux professionals received pay increases last year that surpassed the tech industry average by 2.4 percent; Linux professional bonuses also increased by 12 percent.

When surveying Linux professionals, Dice found that 64 percent of them began building expertise in Linux because of its widespread use in the current technology landscape; 84 percent also directly cited their knowledge of Linux has improved opportunity and advancement in their careers.

According to the 2014 report, “Employers are more acutely focused on finding Linux talent now that they are more confident in the outlook for their companies. Half of the respondents said their plans reflected company growth and a resulting need for more Linux talent and experience, while 35 percent cited an increasing use of Linux throughout the enterprise.”

The report surveyed over 1,100 hiring managers from various institutions, including small and medium sized businesses (SMBs), government agencies and corporations. Over 4,000 current Linux professionals were also surveyed for the report.


use this link to know the full salary reports:


Dice Report

Dice Report Executive summary

It’s a good time to be a technology professional: The technology unemployment rate remains low, employers plan to strengthen their technology work forces in 2014 and salaries are rising. But – it’s a great time – to be a developer or systems administrator with Linux experience. Hiring managers at tech-powered companies are focusing more attention on Linux talent and that’s reverberating in the market, with stronger than average salary increases to those working with Linux.

To better understand why Linux professionals have such a strong advantage in the tech industry, and to learn how employers can attract and retain the best of them, Dice and The Linux Foundation surveyed both hiring managers and Linux talent to gain a 360-degree view of the thriving Linux jobs landscape. The 2014 Linux Jobs Report explores the explosive demand for Linux talent and the lengths employers will go in order to attract and retain the best candidates.

This year’s survey includes responses from more hiring managers and Linux professional than ever before: More than 1,100 hiring managers at corporations, small and medium businesses (SMBs), government organizations, and staffing agencies across the globe—as well as responses from more than 4,000 Linux professionals worldwide.

Getting laser focused on Linux

Employers are more acutely focused on finding Linux talent now that they are more confident in the outlook for their companies. Half of the respondents said their plans reflected company growth and a resulting need for more Linux talent and experience, while 35 percent cited an increasing use of Linux throughout the enterprise. In addition, the number of hiring managers who suggest Linux is becoming more core to their business jumped 10 points since last year.

Hiring managers will not skimp when it comes to filling positions that require Linux experience. When asked how they meet their companies’ needs when they are unable to find Linux professionals, the number one answer was: Keep looking. Fifty-four percent said they continue to look until they find a close fit.

The Linux recruiting race is on

The explosive demand for Linux talent is intensifying. Seventy seven percent of hiring managers have “hiring Linux talent” on their list of priorities for 2014, up from 70 percent a year ago. More than nine in ten hiring managers plan to bring Linux professionals on board in the next six months. Furthermore, 46 percent plan to boost their hiring of Linux pros in 2014, a 3-point increase over 2012.

In-demand Linux skills will continue to cross both the developer and enterprise management areas, providing diverse opportunities to meet a wide range of Linux skill sets. According to the survey, the areas of expertise that hiring managers are most aggressively seeking include systems administration (58 percent), Linux application development (45 percent) and systems architecture/engineering (45 percent).

93 percent of hiring managers plan to hire Linux professionals in the next six months.

For many professionals, this demand is translating to lots of calls from employers. Nine in 10 hiring managers said it’s “somewhat” or “very difficult” to find experienced Linux pros—and those who have the right skills and expertise are being aggressively recruited. In fact, three quarters of Linux professionals surveyed said they received at least one call from a recruiter in the last six months. Nearly half of those received six or more calls.

Three-quarters of Linux professionals surveyed said they received at least one call from a recruiter in the last six months. Nearly half of those received six or more calls.

10 Skills Needed for a Top Linux Systems Administrator

A Linux administration job is one of the most lucrative job opportunities in the job market these days – with less supply than demand and evolving enterprises looking for IT experts who can manage their Linux systems.

In a recent survey titled “The 2013 Linux Jobs Report” by Linux Foundation and Dice, it was revealed that among 2600 Linux professionals, at least 100 said they were receiving job offers while already being on the job, with 35% planning to hop companies within the coming year.

However, the demand is not just for any IT professional, rather Linux-savvy administrators. The reason behind this is that with the introduction of the Cloud Linux and the widespread use of Linux from mobile phones to large enterprises, it was only inevitable that all these systems would need people to manage them.

To get on the bandwagon, you need to have at least a few skills related to Linux, 10 of which are listed below. It should be mentioned that these requirements are the most common among hiring managers, and most companies around the world more or less requires the same list of qualifications before you can apply.

The 10 important skills that Linux administrators must possess are:

1. While specific knowledge is a boon, most hiring managers require that you possess basic knowledge about all aspects of Linux. For example, a little knowledge about Solaris, BSD, nginx or various flavors of Linux never hurt anyone!

2. Knowledge in at least one of the upper tier scripting language is a must. You have options before you, for instance, Python, Perl, Ruby or more, but you need to make yourself proficient in at least one of them.

3. Experience is welcome, but you at least need to have some hands-on experience of system management, system setup and managing Linux or Solaris based servers as well as configuring them.

4. Knowledge in shell programming and architecture is valued very much in the job market. If you know Buorne or Korn well, you can even score a high-paying salary with minimal experience.

5. Storage technologies like FC, NFS or iSCSI is great, while knowledge regarding backup technologies is a must for a system administrator.

6. Knowledge in testing methodologies like Subversion or Git is definitely a plus, while knowledge of version control is also an advantage.

7. You need to know the basics of configuration management tools like Puppet and Chef to present yourself with confidence in front of the interviewer.

8. Skills with system and application monitoring tools like SNMP or Nagios are also important, as they show your ability as an administrator in a team setting.

9. Knowing how to operate virtualized VMWare server is also a great skill to boast in your resume.

10. And last but not least, an ITIL Foundation certification will all but secure your employment in any company looking for a capable and qualified Linux system administrator.

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